Teeth development

Teeth begin to form early during fetal stage. This applies to both milk teeth and permanent teeth. The tendons for the teeth lie in the jawbone and at a certain age the teeth start to grow.

The tooth abutment is initially just a soft small accumulation of cells inside the jawbone. The teeth get their proper shape and become hard with the mineralization, which means that especially lime and phosphorus are stored in the tooth abutment.

Milk teeth

The mineralization of the milk teeth begins in the week of pregnancy 14. The dental crown is formed first. The roots of the milk teeth become clear between one and a half years and three years of age. The mineralization of the first permanent dental crowns usually begins just before birth and lasts until the child is between six and seven years. The roots of the permanent teeth are fully formed about three years after the teeth have emerged. The development of permanent teeth can vary greatly between people. Girls are generally six months earlier than boys.

The baby’s first teeth

The child usually gets his first teeth sometime at six to eight months of age. Some children already have teeth at birth, but this is unusual. If the child has not received his first teeth at one and a half years of age, it may be good to tell the staff at the child care center, bvc, who can refer dentists if needed.

Mostly two front teeth come first in the lower jaw, followed by two front teeth in the upper jaw. The first cheek teeth usually come at one to one and a half years of age. At the age of three, the child usually has all his milk teeth.

Man has two sets of teeth. The first teeth, called milk teeth, are adapted to the little child’s mouth. Probably they have started to be called milk teeth because they appear when the baby is breastfeeding, and because they are whiter in color than the next round of teeth. In total, a child gets 20 milk teeth, ten in the upper jaw and ten in the lower jaw.

The gums can become irritated

Usually the child does not have the trouble of teeth breaking out. It can itch in the mouth and the baby usually droopes a little more when teeth emerge. It can therefore be comfortable for the child with a light massage of the gums, for example with a soft bitterness. You can also gently rub the baby’s gums with a finger or a soft toothbrush.

It may happen that the gums become irritated or that the new tooth has difficulty penetrating the gums, resulting in a slight swelling. It may even be a small bruise. It almost always resolves by itself, but if the child seems to be in pain you can talk to the staff at bvc. If the child has a fever when teeth appear, it has other causes.

The teeth in the lower jaw come off first

When the child is between five and seven years, the first milk teeth start to become loose. The front teeth in the lower jaw usually loosen first and then the front teeth in the upper jaw. As the new permanent tooth grows, the roots of the milk tooth dissolve ever since. In the end, the milk tooth has no attachment and the child can loosen the tooth.

The new tooth is placed under but obliquely inside the milk tooth. It happens because the baby can suddenly have both the milk tooth and the permanent tooth visible in the mouth. It is as it should be, but the child usually needs to wiggle a little extra on the milk tooth to release it.

Behind the last milk teeth in the tooth row come the first four permanent cheek teeth, the so-called six-year teeth. New teeth are important to discover because they are fragile and extra sensitive to caries. Furthermore, the cheek teeth are usually bulky and difficult to access, making it difficult to brush really clean.

The dentist examines if any tooth is missing

The child is regularly called for examination at the dental office. The teeth are then counted in order for the dentist to detect as soon as possible if teeth are missing, too many, are prevented from breaking out, deviate in shape or have any fault with the mineralization.

It will be easier for the dentist to influence and plan the treatment if abnormalities are detected early. For example, the dentist may need to remove a milk tooth to facilitate the new permanent tooth to grow in the right place.

Teeth may also differ in shape. Among the milk teeth, a tooth is sometimes double. Such a tooth need not be treated.

Teeth may also differ in shape. Among the milk teeth, a tooth is sometimes double. Such a tooth does not need to be treated, but on the other hand it is brushed a little extra as it easily becomes caries in the groove that is formed between the two coalesced tooth crowns.

The permanent teeth

The first permanent teeth are usually the front teeth, which the child gets between five and seven years of age. It changes the look and the new teeth look great on the child’s face. But they must be large to fit in the face as the child grows up. The baby’s face and jaws grow when the milk teeth are replaced with the permanent teeth. At the same time with the first front teeth, sometimes a few months earlier or later, four pitiful cheek teeth appear at the back of the tooth row. These are the so-called six-year teeth.

The tooth exchange usually ends when the child is between nine and 13 years and in total they have had 28 permanent teeth. The variations are large and usually girls end up tooth replacement earlier than boys. At the age of 16 to 20 years, wisdom teeth usually reach the back of the tooth rows

Impatient and sensitive to caries

The teeth often come oblique and with windows, but that is as it should be. If the child has not been spared between the front teeth, it will probably get crowded in the mouth when all the teeth have emerged. The teeth eventually straighten into rows using the pressure from the tongue and from the cheeks and lips. If there is no place, they will continue to stand crooked.

New teeth are important to discover because they are fragile and extra sensitive to caries. Furthermore, the cheek teeth are usually bulky and difficult to access, making it difficult to brush really clean.

The permanent teeth come at different ages in different children at the same time as the bite and jaw development goes on for the full. In order for the dentist to be able to detect early on whether something needs to be corrected, it is important that the child is examined regularly during these years.


The tooth that most often becomes a problem is the canine tooth in the upper jaw. This is because it is placed so high in the jaw and comes down the last of the 28 teeth. Sometimes it grows, although there is not really room for it, either in the palate or even more commonly on the outside of the tooth row. It may also be that the tooth grows wrong or does not appear at all.

When the child is nine to ten years, the dentist assesses the position of the canine tooth by sensing where it is located. If the canine tooth is not clearly visible on the outside of the tooth bone, an x-ray examination may be required to determine if the canine tooth presses the teeth next to it. If so, there is a risk that the pressure of the canine will cause damage to the teeth next to it during its progression. If it is considered to be problems around the progression of canine teeth, the child may see a dentist who specializes in dental regulation. The most common thing is to remove the milk tooth, but sometimes it may also be necessary to help the permanent canine to the correct position with tooth regulation.

Sometimes wisdom wisdom must be removed

The wisdom tooth is the cheek tooth that sits at the bottom of the tooth row and it is common that there is no room for the tooth. A wisdom tooth that is well embedded in the jaw bone is usually left there. However, if the wisdom tooth emerges only halfway, dentists usually recommend removing it before 20 to 25 years of age. Otherwise, the tooth often causes problems such as inflammation of the gums. About a quarter of all people never get one or more wisdom teeth.

Teeth may be missing or deviate in shape

Barely a child of ten lacks one or more permanent teeth. It is usually possible to solve with bite planning, which can, for example, remove the milk tooth. The permanent tooth behind the tooth row then takes the place of the milk tooth. Sometimes tooth regulation is needed to reduce the gaps. Tooth control is primarily performed by specially trained dentists. Tooth control is performed primarily by moving the teeth after an arch that is fixed in the arch brackets that are glued to the teeth. There are also removable dental racks that can be used for certain types of bite problems. Occasionally, dental latches can also be increased to make room for artificial teeth that are attached to titanium screws, so-called dental implants.

The most common deviation is that a tooth is narrow and slightly pointed. It is hereditary and occurs in the same families where that tooth is sometimes missing.

Double teeth also occur among permanent front teeth. Then it is usually an appearance question if treatment is needed. In rare cases, the tooth can be malformed inside and then it must be removed due to the risk of infection. Deviations in the number and shape of the teeth are hereditary, but the heritability is different for different conditions.

One tooth too much

Children can sometimes have a tooth too much, so-called persuasion. It is most common between the front teeth of the upper jaw. If the extra tooth grows out in the mouth, it can be removed in the same way as a regular tooth. The tooth can also prevent the real tooth from growing or cause the tooth to come obliquely. Then the child may come to a specialist who decides the right time to remove the extra tooth. But if the tooth does not interfere with the development of ordinary teeth, it can remain.

Even further back in the tooth row, teeth may not emerge properly. Most often, the tooth appears if the dentist removes the gums that cover it. If the tooth does not show up despite the treatment, the dentist must pull it out, as there may be something on the root that is obstructing the plant.

A tooth that is not allowed to grow as its root increases in length can have a deformed root. This can mean that the tooth can never come out properly. Dental care is therefore extra careful to examine children during the periods in which teeth break out, ie between six and seven years and when the child is between nine and 13 years. At this age, there is also a lot going on in the development of the baby’s jaw and bite, and this too is followed up in the examinations.

Defective mineralization

In every fifth child, some or all of the permanent teeth have defective mineralization. This means that the hardness of the enamel is affected on parts of or throughout the tooth crown when the teeth break out. It is most common to get it in the first permanent cheek that comes at the back of the tooth row at the age of six. Sometimes the child gets it in the front teeth at the same time. Usually, the damage is so mild that daily tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste is enough to strengthen the tooth.

Defective mineralization may look like only a small white or yellow spot on the tooth, but sometimes the entire dental crown is affected. When major parts of the tooth are poorly mineralized, it can become dull and hurt especially when the child eats or drinks something hot or cold. Then there is treatment to be given so that the child does not have pain.

The child may have mineralization disorders and stains on his teeth by daily consuming too high doses of fluoride. It is especially important to avoid this during the part of the tooth development when the crown is formed inside the jawbone, that is up to six years of age. If you have your own well, it is important to control the fluorine content of the water. The municipality’s environmental office can help with the practical. If the fluorine content is high, it may be good in the first few years to collect the child’s drinking water in a place where the fluorine content is low. Fluorine does not disappear from the water when boiling.

Having deviations in the number, shape or mineralization of the teeth has no significance for the child’s development in general.

Illness and treatment can hinder tooth development

It is uncommon, but sometimes the teeth are prevented by certain diseases, medications or treatment of serious illnesses.

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