Peptic ulcer or peptic ulcer is a wound in the duodenal mucosal layer (the upper part of the small intestine) or stomach. Duodenal ulcer is more common than gastric ulcer. What is relatively rare is esophageal ulcers, which form in the esophagus and are often the result of exposure to drugs, such as certain antibiotics or anti-inflammatories, and alcohol abuse.
There is no clear evidence that shows that stress in modern life or eating fast food causes ulcers in the stomach and small intestine, but this condition is indeed common in society. About one out of every 10 people will suffer from heartburn or stomach symptoms due to an ulcer.
Conventional policy said that peptic ulcer formed as a result of stress, genetic predisposition to excessive gastric acid secretion, and poor lifestyle habits (including consuming fatty foods, alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco).
This theory believes that this influence contributes to the accumulation of stomach acid which erodes the gastric mucosa, duodenum, or esophagus.
Causes of Peptic Ulcer
While excessive gastric acid secretion certainly plays a role in the development of ulcers, a relatively new theory states that bacterial infections are the main cause of gastric ulcers.
Indeed, research carried out since the mid 1980s has shown that the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) is present in more than 90% of duodenal ulcers and about 80% of gastric ulcers. However, newer figures show a declining percentage.
Other factors also seem to contribute to the formation of peptic ulcer. Overuse of over-the-counter pain relievers or those that can be purchased without a doctor’s prescription (such as aspirin, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, sodium diclofenac and naproxen), heavy alcohol use, psychological stress, and smoking can worsen and worsen ulcers, especially in someone with H. pylori bacterial infection.
Other studies show that peptic ulcer is more likely to occur in older people. This may be because arthritis (inflammation and joint pain) is prevalent in older people, and to reduce pain, parents can take a number of painkillers such as sodium diclofenac or ibuprofen.
Another factor might be that as we age, the pylorus (the valve between the stomach and duodoneum) relaxes more and allows excess bile (a compound produced in the liver to aid digestion) to seep into the stomach and erode the gastric mucosal layer.
Although the exact cause is unknown, people with blood type A are more likely to have a gastric ulcer that becomes gastric cancer.
Whereas duodenal ulcer tends to appear in people with blood type O. This may be because the patient does not produce substances on the surface of blood cells that can protect the duodenal layer.
Symptoms of Peptic Ulcer
The main symptom that you will feel if you have peptic ulcer disease is pain or pain in the stomach. The pain arises because of irritation due to stomach acid that wet the wound. These symptoms are usually in the form of pain that:
- Appears at night.
- Feels worse on an empty stomach.
- Spread to the neck, navel, to the back.
- Disappear and then recur a few days or weeks later.
- It generally decreases temporarily if you eat or take stomach acid-lowering drugs.
In addition to pain in the stomach, there are several other symptoms that you may experience, including heartburn, decreased appetite, nausea, and digestive disorders.
If you feel these symptoms, check with your doctor immediately. However, peptic ulcer sometimes does not cause any symptoms until complications occur.
Therefore, you should be more vigilant and immediately go to the hospital to get fast treatment, especially if you experience vomiting of blood, stool with blood or black, and abdominal pain that appears suddenly and continues to get worse. These symptoms indicate the occurrence of bleeding in the stomach
Peptic Ulcer Treatment
Fortunately, peptic ulcer is a relatively easy disease to treat. In many cases sufferers can be cured with antibiotics, antacids, and other drugs that reduce the amount of acid produced by the stomach.
There are also various independent treatments and alternative treatments that can help in pain relief. However, the dangers associated with peptic ulcer such as anemia, gastric bleeding, and gastric cancer are serious problems, so peptic ulcer must always be monitored by a doctor.
Other treatments that can be done include:
- Resting the intestine: multiply time to sleep and drink mineral water without food at all for several days. This gives an opportunity to start healing ulcers without being irritated by any food ingredients.
- Nasogastric tube: placement of a thin and flexible tube through the nose into the stomach. Nasogastric tubes also reduce pressure on the stomach and help cure the condition of peptic ulcer.
- Urgent endoscopy or surgery: this is done if blood vessels are damaged with more than normal bleeding. Endoscopy has a small heating device at the end that is used to burn blood vessels.