Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection that occurs in the female reproductive organs. PID is a disease that usually occurs when bacterial disease spreads from the vagina to the uterus, fallopian tubes, or ovaries (ovaries).
Pelvic inflammatory disease
PID is a disease that is mostly found in women aged 15-24 years who are sexually active. In addition to infertility problems, pelvic inflammatory disease that is not treated immediately can cause chronic pelvic pain and ectopic pregnancy.
Some other disorders that can occur related to PID, include:
- Cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix).
- Salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes).
- Endometritis (inflammation of the lining of the uterus).
- Peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers most of the abdominal organs).
All of these conditions can be considered as specific diseases but many researchers classify them as variations of pelvic inflammatory disease, especially if caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Bacteria can infect the fallopian tubes and cause inflammation (salpingitis). When this happens, normal tissue can become scar and block normal egg cells and cause infertility (infertility). But if the fallopian tube is partially blocked, the egg can be implanted outside the uterus and cause a dangerous condition called ectopic pregnancy.
Ectopic pregnancy can cause internal bleeding and even death. Scarring can also develop elsewhere in the abdomen and cause pelvic pain that can last for months or years.
The two most commonly involved bacteria that cause pelvic inflammatory disease are Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which cause sexually transmitted diseases, chlamydia and gonorrhea.
Pelvic inflammatory disease can cause a variety of symptoms. Some women can be very painful, seriously ill and have a fever. Other people have no obvious symptoms or even look sick.
Thus, PID is a disease that is not always easy to diagnose. But it is important for women to seek medical help if they have risk factors for PID disease or symptoms.
Symptoms of Pelvic Inflammation
Basically, infected female reproductive organs do not always show symptoms and most cases are difficult to recognize. Symptoms of pelvic inflammation that can be experienced can include pain when urinating, pain during sex or pain in the lower abdomen.
In addition, symptoms of pelvic inflammation can also cause fever, nausea and vomiting. Leucorrhoea that changes color to yellow or green can also be a sign of an infection in the reproductive organs. Also be aware of longer menstrual periods and bleeding that occurs between periods or after sexual intercourse.
Causes of Pelvic Inflammation
Pelvic inflammatory disease or pelvic inflammatory disease is a disease caused by bacteria that is transmitted through sexual contact and other body secretions. The bacteria that cause are gonorrhea and chlamydia in more than half of cases.
Many studies show that a number of PID patients and other sexually transmitted diseases are often infected with two or more infectious agents, and generally these are Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
In addition, some bacteria that normally live in the vagina can also cause pelvic inflammation. This bacterium will pass through the vagina and infect other organs. Risk factors for pelvic inflammatory disease are related to abortion, miscarriage, history of pelvic inflammation and previous sexually transmitted infections, to the use of IUD (spiral) contraceptives.
How to treat pelvic inflammation
Pelvic inflammation treatment can be done by giving antibiotics to patients who are still in the early stages of the disease. For 14 days, patients will usually be given antibiotics ofloxacin, metronidazole, doxycycline, or ceftriaxone to treat bacterial infections.
In addition to antibiotics, administration of pain medications such as paracetamol or ibuprofen can also be used. Most patients with severe cases of pelvic inflammatory disease can receive antibiotics through a hospital infusion. Treatment with antibiotics must be completed completely according to the consumption period recommended by the doctor so that the bacterial infection is completely gone.
For patients who are pregnant, it is advisable to consult a doctor before taking antibiotics. While for patients with pelvic inflammation who use an IUD contraceptive or often called a spiral KB, doctors will usually recommend the removal of the contraception if the symptoms do not improve after a few days.
The surgical procedure is done if an abscess has appeared on an infected organ and there is scarring that causes pain. Surgery can be performed by opening the abdomen (laparotomy) or by minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopy), to remove or drain the abscess and cut the scar tissue.