Injury – Causes and Types

Wounds are a type of injury to the skin that is torn, cut, punctured, or when exposed to a blunt object, causing bruising. In addition, the understanding of other injuries is the condition of soft tissue termination, both nerves, muscles, skin, and blood vessels.

Getting to Know More What Is a Injury?

After you get a brief explanation of the definition of the wound. Another thing that should not escape attention is regarding the condition of the skin. The skin is a barrier to the outside world that protects the body from infections, radiation, and extreme temperatures.

There are many types of wounds that can damage the skin including abrasions, lacerations, rupture injuries, punctures, and cuts through the skin layer. Many wounds with shallow depth require first aid including wound cleansing and wound dressing.

Some deeper injuries need medical attention to prevent infection and prevent loss of tissue function, due to damage to underlying structures such as bones, muscles, tendons, arteries and nerves.

The purpose of medical treatment for wounds is to prevent complications and maintain function. Although important, beauty and cosmetics are not the main considerations for wound repair. Effective care and management of individuals with injuries depends on a holistic and systematic approach.

Cause of Injury

The wound itself can be caused by various things. But in general the most common cause of injury is due to mechanical trauma. Understanding mechanical injury can be caused by a blunt or sharp object.

In addition, wounds can also be divided into two, namely open and closed wounds based on the integrity of the tissue. The wound itself can appear with or without an infection.

The skin can be damaged in various ways depending on the mechanism of injury, including:

  • Inflammation is the initial response of injured skin.
  • Superficial injuries (on the surface) and abrasions do not injure the deeper layers of the skin. This type of injury is usually caused by friction with rough surfaces
  • Deep abrasions (deeper blisters due to cuts or lacerations) injure the skin layer and enter the underlying tissue such as muscles or bones.
  • Puncture wounds are usually caused by sharp pointed objects piercing the skin. Examples of stab wounds include needles, stepping on nails, or stab wounds with a knife
  • Human bites and animal bites can be classified as stab wounds, blisters, or a combination of both.

Injuries due to prolonged pressure, such as injuries due to lying for a long time in bed, from sitting in a wheelchair for a long time, or because of the use of casts for a long time.

Prolonged pressure sores can develop due to lack of blood supply to the skin caused by chronic pressure on the skin area, especially having underlying diseases such as diabetes, circulation problems (peripheral vascular disease), or malnourished patients.

Type of wound

In general, the types of wounds can be distinguished based on clean or dirty wounds, such as surgical incision wounds. This type of injury is made by a doctor to repair damaged tissue or surgical procedures.

Here are other types of injuries that you should recognize, including:

  • Cut

This type of wound causes the skin area to be cut off by a sharp object such as a knife or other objects that have sharp edges. The wound often bleeds and the edges of the wound are slightly broken.

2. The wound is closed

This type of wound is found in the tissue under the skin. It can be an injury to broken or cracked bones and ligaments and blood clots

3. Abrasions

This wound is generally harmless. The reason could be due to falling or rubbing against a rough surface. Although not dangerous, abrasions can cause pain because this type of wound is able to reach many nerve endings that are under the skin.

4. Bite wound

This is a type of injury caused by dental bites, whether by animals or humans.

5. Burns

Burns can be caused by damage to skin tissue due to radiation, chemicals or electrical.

Based on the Time of Wound Healing

Basically, wound care must be based on anatomical and physiological knowledge, holistic assessment, specific wound management and selection of appropriate wound management products.

  • Chronic wounds

This type of injury can occur due to exogenous and endogenous factors in the body, thus making failure in the healing process.

2. Acute wounds

This type of injury is in accordance with the agreed healing concept.

Based on the level of contamination

In general, doctors will see what the condition of the wound before deciding what medication is recommended given. For example, a deep, large, dirty wound will need special treatment to prevent infection, for example by stitching.

  • Clean wound

Clean wounds are wounds caused by surgery with sterile techniques, for example in the abdominal wall area and other tissues that are located deeper (non contaminated deep tissue), such as blood vessels, thyroid, bone, and brain.

  • Clean-contamination wound

This injury can occur due to resistant objects. Unsterile environment or surgery involving the bronchial area and small intestine.

  • Contamination wounds

This type of injury is often caused by a dirty environment. Handling can be done is surgery on infected bronchial, large intestine and urinary tract infections.

  • Infection wound

This type of injury is followed by tissue damage, and lack of vascularization of the wound tissue.

Based on the depth and extent of the wound

The slow process of wound healing can be caused by high blood sugar levels. Blood sugar that is too high can reduce blood flow, disrupt the immune system, increase the risk of trade, and inhibit cells from getting nutrients. A number of disorders that can inhibit wound healing.

  • Stage I

Superficial wounds. This type of injury is a wound that occurs in the epidermis layer of the skin.

  • Stage II

This type of injury is the loss of the skin layer in the epidermis and the upper part of the dermis. Superficial injuries and clinical signs such as shallow holes, abrasions, or blisters

  • Stage III

This type of injury is a complete loss of skin including damage or necrosis of subcutaneous tissue that can extend to the bottom but do not cross the underlying tissue. This wound arises clinically as a deep hole with or without damage to the surrounding tissue.

  • Stage IV

The last type of injury is a wound that has reached the tendons, bones and muscles because it is extensive damage.

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