Hypermetropia (Nearsightedness) – Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

hypermetropia or farsightedness is one of the most common vision problems. hypermetropia sufferers can see objects from a distance very well, but have difficulty seeing objects from close range.

There are varying degrees of hypermetropia severity, depending on the ability of the eye to focus on seeing objects closely. If you can only clearly see objects that are very far away, and it is very difficult to see objects that are close, then that means you have nearsightedness that is severe. Fortunately this condition is easy to improve.

Symptoms of hypermetrophy

Farsightedness can also occur if the eyeball is shorter than normal. These conditions cause the incoming light to be focused behind the retina of the eye, whereas normally light must be focused on the surface of the retina. The following are some of the common symptoms that usually occur:

  • Need to squint to see clearly.
  • Eye fatigue, including burning eyes, and pain around the eyes.
  • Eye discomfort or headaches after a close look, such as reading, writing, computer work or drawing

If you do not wear glasses or contact lenses and do not have symptoms of eye problems and have a lower risk, do a basic eye examination at around the age of 40 years. Then do the eye examination again with the following time intervals:

  • Every 2-4 years between the ages of 40-54 years.
  • Every 1-3 years between the ages of 55-64 years.
  • Every 1-2 years begins at the age of 65 years.

If you are at high risk of having certain eye diseases, such as a family history of glaucoma, or having a chronic disease such as high blood pressure or diabetes, the frequency of visits should be increased to:

  • Every 2-4 years before the age of 40 years.
  • Every 1-3 years at the age of 40-54 years.
  • Every 1-2 years from the age of 55 years and over.

Meanwhile, if you wear glasses or contact lenses, then you need to have your eyes checked every year.

Children and Teens

At this age, a person needs to be screened for eye disease. A child’s vision can be tested by a pediatrician, eye doctor or other trained screener. In addition, it is recommended that school-age children also need to have an eye check every 2 years and this should be held by the school so that all children can be examined.

As is known, the eye has two parts to focus light/image:

  • Cornea, front surface of the eye.
  • The lens, a clear structure in the eye that changes shape to bulge or tangle (accommodation power) to help focus on the object.

In perfectly shaped eyes, each focusing element has a perfectly smooth curve, like a marble surface. A cornea and lens with curvature like bends (refracts) all incoming light to make sharp images focused directly on the retina just behind the eyes.

If the cornea is uneven or the lens has disrupted accommodation power, the ray of light is not refracted appropriately, so there is a bias error. Farsightedness is one type of bias error.

Farsightedness occurs when your cornea is curved too little or the size of the eyeball is shorter than normal. Instead of focusing right on the retina, light is instead focused behind the retina which makes vision blurry when looking at objects close by. In addition to farsightedness, other biased errors include:

  • Nearsightedness (myopia). This happens when your cornea is curved too much or the size of the eyeball is longer, which makes distant objects blurred and objects that are close up clearly visible.
  • Astigmatism (cylinder eyes). This happens when the cornea or lens is steeper steeper in one direction than the other. The uncorrected astigmatism obscures the view.

In addition, farsightedness can be associated with several problems, such as:

  • Reducing quality of life. Farsightedness that is not treated can affect quality of life. Limited vision can prevent you from doing important tasks. In children, short-sightedness that is left untreated can cause learning problems due to difficulty in reading.
  • Eye strain. Farsightedness that is not corrected can cause squinting because the eye is trying to keep the focus of light. This can cause eye fatigue and headaches.
  • Safety Disturbances. For your own safety and those of others, do not drive or operate mechanical equipment if you have vision problems.
Hypermetropic Treatment

The goal of treating nearsightedness is to help light focus on the retina through the use of corrective lenses or refractive surgery. Some steps that can be done are:

  • Corrective lens

In young people, corrective lenses are not always needed because the lenses inside the eye are flexible enough to compensate for the condition. But as you age, the lens becomes less flexible and eventually it might need corrective lenses to improve close vision.

  • Wide range of glasses, trifocals, progressive lenses and reading glasses.
  • Contact lens. A wide variety of contact lenses are available – hard, soft, worn continuously, disposable, lenses made of permeable rigid gas and bifocal lenses. Ask your eye doctor about the pros and cons of contact lenses and what might be best for you.
  • Refractive Surgery

This surgical treatment aims to reshape your corneal curvature. Refractive surgery methods include:

  • Laser keratomileusis(LASEK). LASEK is a procedure in which the ophthalmologist makes a thin, hinged circular flap that cuts the cornea. Then the eye surgeon uses an excimer laser to remove layers from the corneal center to form a steep dome. An excimer laser is different from other lasers in that it does not produce heat. After the laser is used, a thin corneal flap is repositioned.
  • Laser subepithelial keratectomy. Instead of creating a flap in the cornea, the surgeon creates a flap involving only the thin protective cap of the cornea (epithelium). The doctor will use an excimer laser to reshape the outer layer of the cornea and steep curvature and then reposition the epithelial flap. To facilitate healing, you can wear a bandage contact lens for several days after the procedure.
  • Photorefractive keratectomy. This procedure is similar to Lasek, except it removes the epithelium. The epithelium will grow back naturally, according to the new shape of your cornea. Bandage contact lenses may be needed for several days after surgery.
  • Conductive keratoplasty. This procedure uses radio frequency energy to apply heat to small spots around the cornea. The effect resembles a plastic wrap that is exposed to heat. The degree of change in corneal curvature depends on the number and distance from the place and the manner in which the cornea heals after treatment. CK results are not permanent.

Some complications that may occur after surgery include:

  • Improper view correction: causes undercorrection or
  • Side effects, such as the presence of ‘circular rainbow’ that appear around the lamp.
  • Dry eye.
  • Infection

Discuss hypermetropic treatment procedures that are right for your eyes. If indeed the glasses are able to correct correctly and do not interfere with activity, your doctor may simply recommend the use of glasses alone.

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