How can I prevent an injury before starting physical, moderate or intense activity?

The preparation depends on the time that has passed between the last physical exercise session and the one that is being considered. Whenever there has been a period of inactivity, even if it is a few months, it is advisable to go to a sports medicine specialist to pass a sports medical examination. In this examination, a clinical-sports history must be carried out, in which the sports history (which sports have been practiced, intensity, duration…) and personal and family medical history (diseases) are evaluated, as well as an electrocardiogram to detect any cardiac abnormality that could lead to an injury or accident during sports. In this phase, the most appropriate type of sport is also evaluated for the physical condition presented and it is decided how it should be performed.

Once the check is done, the next step that must be followed is to choose the most appropriate clothing for the type of sport that will be performed, taking into account the weather conditions and whether it will be practiced in a closed, open space or a combination of both. The outside temperature can affect muscle tension and cause small fractures and injuries, so it is necessary to choose comfortable clothes and shoes that allow perspiration and do not sweat more than necessary. The use of different garments should be foreseen as the temperature changes, as well as the amount of liquids that should be drunk to prevent the loss of salts and prevent dizziness.

Any activity aimed at improving physical fitness, especially after a long period of inactivity, must be carried out progressively. To do this, the exercise will begin with a warm-up that increases energy production and, therefore, the temperature of the muscles. With the proper warm-up exercises, the organism will be prepared for physical activity, coordination will be improved and at the same time the probability of suffering injuries will decrease.

It is also necessary, once the physical exercise is finished, to perform cooling exercises to return to the resting form gradually, not suddenly, for example, walking a few hundred meters before stopping. The final stretching session, according to the type of sport performed, will favor muscle relaxation and prevent possible injuries.

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