Everything about Caesarean section – From causes to aftercare

A caesarean section is a delivery method used when a vaginal delivery for any reason is not possible. When performing a caesarean section, an incision is made through the abdomen and uterus. The child is then lifted from the stomach.

There are three types of caesarean sections: planned, urgent and immediate. The reasons why you need a cesarean section are several, including the child lying down with the tail in the uterus or pregnancy poisoning. In 2015, caesarean sections accounted for about 17 percent of childbirths in Sweden.

Planned Caesarean section

A planned caesarean section is exactly what it sounds like, a pre-planned operation. You will know about the Caesarean section in advance and your visit is planned. You will have time to prepare. You usually get spinal anesthesia in a planned cesarean section. At a planned cut, it is good if someone close to attend the operation.

Emergency Caesarean

In the case of an acute caesarean section, the delivery has already started before the doctor decided to have a caesarean section. Since it usually takes between half an hour and an hour between decision and surgery, there is some time to prepare. Often you get back anesthesia. Some close relatives can be with you. In an emergency cut, there is usually some time to ask questions and get information.

Immediate (uracut) caesarean section

At an immediate, also called urakut, cesarean section, there is not much time. As it is in a hurry, the healthcare staff skips some of the preparations. You who are pregnant quickly get into surgery and are anesthetized with anesthesia so that the baby can get out as soon as possible. The baby is usually lifted from the stomach within 10 to 15 minutes of the cesarean section. Relatives are not usually allowed to attend immediate Caesarean sections.

Causes of Caesarean section

There are several reasons why you as a pregnant woman may need to give birth through Caesarean section.

  • The baby lies with the tail down in the womb, so-called “seat invitation”
  • Pregnancy poisoning (high blood pressure during pregnancy, caused by hypersensitivity to parts of the fetus and placenta)
  • Multiple births in complicated pregnancies
  • The placenta is in the way of the child (the current placenta)
  • Previous operations or injuries
  • Crowded pelvis
  • Big child
  • Fear of childbirth

In addition to these causes, there are also some other things that can lead to the need for an immediate or immediate caesarean section. These can be problems that occur during a vaginal delivery, such as ineffective pain or the delivery takes too long. It may also be that the child does not feel well and is threatened by, for example, lack of oxygen. Another cause may be large bleeding or rupture of the uterus.

Before the Caesarean section

Before your cesarean section, you will receive information from your doctor and your midwife. In some cases, you may even see an anesthetist and talk about anesthesia. You get to know how the procedure goes and you get the opportunity to ask questions. Take the chance to ask and get answers to your thoughts about the Caesarean section. It is also possible to have the information printed so that you can read it in peace and quiet. Also, be aware that it is possible to get help from an interpreter if you do not speak English or have problems with hearing.

You who undergo Caesarean should not eat or drink anything after midnight before surgery. If anesthesia is needed, it is best to have an empty stomach. When you come to the hospital you usually do some preparations like leaving blood samples, changing to hospital clothes and removing jewelry. Some relatives may come along. However, it also needs to change to hospital clothes.

At the maternity ward or the surgical ward you get a catheter that is pregnant. Since you cannot urinate yourself, the catheter may need to remain until the anesthetic disappears. You also get another catheter in the arm fold or on the top of the hand; a venous catheter. The vein catheter is a thin, small plastic tube that is inserted into a blood vessel. It is inserted using a needle which is then removed. The vein catheter allows you to get fluid and drugs under the caesarean section.

How is a caesarean section going?

In a caesarean section, up to twelve people (doctors, midwives and other health care personnel) can attend the operating room. The room usually has a simple interior and mainly contains operating and surveillance equipment. The related ones are usually placed at the head end of the operating table. If you are awake at the Caesarean section, a screen is placed in front of your stomach and lower body so you do not see what is happening.

The doctor makes an incision in the skin, often a so-called bikini cut, far down at the pubic bone. If you have already given Caesarean section before, the cut is often made in the old scar. After the incision is made and the stomach and uterus are opened, the baby is lifted out by the doctor. You as a pregnant woman may feel a pressure and notice that the doctor is messing around, but it does not hurt.

When the child comes out, the umbilical cord is cut by someone close or the health care professional. After undergoing the caesarean section, you will receive a drug that causes the uterus to contract. The doctor pulls the umbilical cord slightly for the placenta to loosen and then lifts it out of the stomach. The doctor then checks that the uterus has contracted properly. If the uterus is not contracted, extra medication is given to get it done.

The wound is then sewn together and bandaged. The wound is usually sewn with a thread that causes the stitches to disappear on their own. Bandage is put over the operating scar.

How long does a caesarean section take?

Usually, a caesarean section takes between a quarter and an hour. The child usually comes out a few minutes after the surgery has begun. The rest of the time is used to sew the uterus and stomach after the incision.

Do you get anesthetized?

Spinal anesthesia is most common in planned and acute caesarean sections. When you get anesthetized, you can be awake during the cut and be close to the baby immediately after it is born. Anesthesia is usually used in immediate caesarean sections, but also in some other exceptional cases. When you and the child undergo anesthesia, you may be included for a while and it may take longer before you can meet.

What happens after a caesarean section?

After the operation is complete, you will be taken to an awakening, delivery or bb department. If you become anesthetized, you wake up in the operating room. A midwife comes and checks that the uterus has contracted and that you do not bleed too much from the vagina or the operating wound. The bandage over the operating wound is checked. It can hurt for several days and you can get painkillers. The bandage is needed for one to two days and is removed by the midwife.

Any back anesthesia gradually releases, and when it is completely gone, the midwife usually removes the catheter. Sometimes it may need to stay overnight. Some times drugs are given to reduce the risk of blood clots and infections. It is common to be tired if you have undergone anesthesia.

How long do you stay in the hospital?

Those born with Caesarean section usually stay on bb for two to three days. Some stay longer. Usually it is because you have lost unusually much blood, have problems feeding the child or that the child is not feeling well.


After undergoing a caesarean section, a bleeding called rejection occurs. Rejection is a bloody flow from the vagina. It consists of blood from the wound that is created when the placenta releases from the uterine wall. You usually bleed for four to six weeks. There may be more blood when you are active and moving or when you travel after lying still. The blood can then come in the form of blood clots.

Initially, the rejection is similar to an ample period of time to decrease after a few days. It turns brownish and then becomes brighter and ceases. Some women experience rejection for a few weeks, while others have a maximum of a couple of months. Shower daily to reduce the risk of infection. When rejecting, do not bathe or use a tampon. Use condom for intercourse.

Recovery and aftercare for Caesarean section

The wound begins to heal immediately after the caesarean section. It can go fast at first, but usually it takes a few months before it is completely healed. It is important to try to move even though you may have pain in the stomach and around the wound. The healing is faster and the risk of blood clots and constipation is reduced.

Wait upwards a month before doing any heavy lifting. However, it is possible to carry, for example, a food bag or a small child. Wait at least a month to start exercising the abdominal muscles. Remember not to exercise too intensely in the beginning. On the other hand, it is possible to do squat exercises already a few days after birth. Pelvic floor exercises are just as important for you as having a caesarean section as for those who have given birth vaginally.

In most cases, no special aftercare of the wound is required. Ask your doctor or midwife if you have any questions about what you may do during healing. Seek care if you get symptoms of infection in the wound, such as fever, stomach pain and smelly bleeding.


A scar after Caesarean section heals over time. It will take about six months to know what the scar will look like in the future. In most caesarean sections, the scar is located below the bikini line. It doesn’t appear if you have panties or biniki on you. Talk to your midwife if you have scars and scarring issues.

Risks in Caesarean section

Caesarean section is seen as a simple operation. However, there are some risks and complications:

  • Uterine infection
  • urinary infection
  • Thrombus
  • Uterine bleeding
  • Uterus that does not want to contract properly
  • Trouble with the placenta in upcoming pregnancies

If you experience any problems after the caesarean section, you should contact a midwife. Seek care directly at an emergency room or gynecological emergency room:

  • If you are in pain and are sore in the uterus after the caesarean section
  • If you become swollen and sore in the calf

Pregnant again after Caesarean section

Usually, one can give birth vaginally again after undergoing a caesarean section. It depends on the cause of the caesarean section. Sometimes you get the council to wait a certain time for a new pregnancy. The wound is usually completely healed after a year. If you have had two cesarean sections, vaginal delivery is less common. The doctor even assesses the need for any new cesarean sections according to what the previous pregnancies and births were like.

Do you need support for Caesarean section?

It may feel painful after a caesarean section, for example, if you expected a vaginal delivery. Before going home, it is common to talk through your caesarean section with a midwife or doctor at the bb. If you have questions or concerns about why it became a cut, it may be good to get answers to them. Sometimes the thoughts may emerge gradually. Then you can contact a midwife who can provide support and advice.

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