Erysipeloid – Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Erysipeloid is an infection caused by work on the skin caused by traumatic penetration of Erysipelothrix ulcer inflammation. This is an occupational disease transmitted through direct contact with meat or nonedible materials, such as carcasses or products such as fat, bones, shellfish or fertilizer, as well as from infected animals. This disease is found throughout the world in a variety of animals, including fish, shellfish, poultry, and mammals, especially pigs. Bacteria can enter through wounds or blisters on the skin. In animals, this organism causes erysipelas in pigs and other diseases in poultry and sheep.

This disease has three clinical forms: local skin shape, diffuse skin shape, and severe systemic infection, this can affect the heart, brain, joints, or lungs. The second and third forms of the disease are rarely seen.

The local form of the disease usually affects the skin of the fingers and back of the hand, causing swelling and rashes, or lesions. In the form of diffuse skin, rashes or lesions can appear in various parts of the body. Skin lesions may not be seen in the systemic form of the disease. In rare cases, endocarditis (inflammation of the lining of the heart) or arthritis (inflammation of the joints) can develop as a result of this severe type of Erysipeloid.

Causes of Erysipeloid

The most common cause of Erysipeloid among individuals who have direct contact with infected animals. Those with the highest levels were affected by Erysipeloid, including fishermen, farmers, slaughterhouse workers, butchers and agricultural workers. Erysipeloid is seen most often during summer or early fall in the 4-season country. This disease seems to be more common in men, but it may be due to occupational differences.

Erysipeloid diagnosis

Usually on a history of illness, individuals describe work related to raw meat or fish. Symptoms on the skin are localized or diffuse irritations. The individual will tell of a burning, itchy, or painful lesion on the skin. If a systemic infection occurs, the symptoms reported may be fever, chills, fatigue, or weakness in the body.

On physical examination, there are lesions on the skin purplish red, non-vesicular, flat (not arising) or small bumps arise between fingers, hands, or arms. While lesions can clearly be seen, arise, and there is induration. If touched, skin lesions are also warm and soft. Common skin disease is characterized by a purplish red rash with a clear center, and bullous lesions (bumps with fluid contents). Fever sometimes appears. Individuals with joint involvement will experience swelling in several joints. Individuals with endocarditis may have heart murmurs on examination.

Testing: Bacteria can often develop from the drainage of infected areas. Occasionally, a full-thickness biopsy is needed to make a diagnosis. Isolation of bacteria in the blood is necessary for the diagnosis of endocarditis. Imaging tests such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiography, or echocardiography can be recommended if a systemic form of the disease is suspected.

Treating Erysipeloid

Therapy
Antibiotic therapy using penicillin, ciprofloxacin, or cephalosporin, for 7-10 days usually finish the infection. In resistant cases, therapy with second-line antibiotics is needed. Giving intravenous antibiotics is important to overcome endocarditis. Surgery can be recommended for individuals with a form of systemic disease, depending on the organ affected.

Prognosis
The local and cutaneous form of the disease can usually recover and disappear within 2-4 weeks. In individuals who receive antibiotic therapy, the prognosis for complete recovery. In those who do not get adequate treatment, endocarditis or arthritis can occur, but this condition is not uncommon and can be treated effectively. Needle aspiration from the affected joint, can determine the right antibiotic from the bacteria that will be found later.

Complications
The attack of antibiotic-resistant bacteria will complicate therapy. Recurrent infections can affect the development of allergic sensitivity. Reducing immunity can complicate infection. Individuals with severe systemic forms may have irreversible nerve damage. Endocarditis can result in long-term heart valve disease. Septic arthritis can cause long-term joint disease.

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