Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Dengue hemorrhagic fever or DHF is a disease caused by one of four dengue viruses carried by the Aedes Aegypti mosquito. The dengue virus as a cause of DHF is related to the virus that causes West Nile infection and yellow fever. To note, this virus cannot spread directly from one person to another.

An estimated 390 million dengue infections occur worldwide each year, with around 96 million people infected with the virus that causes dengue disease developed into a dengue fever and even dengue fever.

Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever have differences.

Dengue fever or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a complication of dengue fever (dengue fever) which worsens. Symptoms of DHF are classified as severe (in this phase the body heat decreases) including damage to blood vessels and lymph nodes, vomiting accompanied by blood, bleeding from the gums and nose, shortness of breath, and swelling of the liver that causes pain around the stomach.

Of course the symptoms of DHF characteristics must be very wary of because it can be fatal.

Symptoms of DHF (Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever)

The symptoms of dengue are quite obvious but also look like a general illness so many do not realize that they have dengue. Symptoms of dengue will appear usually after 4-6 days after infection and can last up to 10 days.

This will usually be accompanied by the characteristics of DHF as follows.

  • Sudden high fever
  • Severe headache
  • Pain behind the eyes
  • Severe joint and muscle aches
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Skin rash, which appears 2-5 days after the onset of fever
  • Mild bleeding (nosebleeds, bleeding gums, or easy bruising).

Young children and people who have never had the virus infection that causes DHF before tend to have milder clinical DHF symptoms. However, serious problems that can develop include dengue hemorrhagic fever, a rare complication characterized by high fever, lymph and blood vessel damage, bleeding from the nose and gums, enlarged liver, and failure of the circulatory system.

In fact, dengue fever can develop into dengue shock syndrome (DSS). The symptoms that can be recognized are massive bleeding, shock (lowering blood pressure), and death.

People with a weakened immune system and those with a second or subsequent dengue infection are believed to be at greater risk of developing dengue fever when infected with the virus that causes DHF.

To note, high fever will usually go down on the 4th day, but it is not a sign of healing. If the patient has a fever, the DHF symptoms that appear will be even worse.

Causes of DHF (Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever)

Dengue hemorrhagic fever or DHF is a disease caused by dengue virus that is transmitted to humans through the Aedes aegypti mosquito. When dengue virus causes DHF to infect mosquitoes and mosquitoes bite humans, it can deliver the virus into the body.

Aedes aegypti are generally smaller, the body is jet black with two white vertical lines on the back and horizontal white lines on the legs.

Most dengue cases occur in tropical regions such as: India, Southeast Asia, South China, Taiwan, Pacific Islands, Caribbean Islands (except Cuba and Cayman Islands), Mexico, Africa, Central and South America (except Chile, Paraguay and Argentina ).

DHF Diagnosis (Dengue Fever)

To diagnose dengue infection, the doctor will do a blood test to check for viruses or antibodies. This will allow the doctor to evaluate whether the symptoms that appear are caused by dengue infection or not. If the symptoms of DHF can be ascertained, it’s time for the doctor to take appropriate steps.

However, examination of antibodies or viruses requires a more expensive price than a blood laboratory check, so most doctors in Indonesia use routine blood check parameters to see this dengue fever.

Dengue infection causes the plasma fluid in the blood vessels to move, so the blood becomes more concentrated. This can be seen from the hematocrit levels of patients with increased dengue fever. Then, there is a decrease in platelets, causing bleeding. And finally, dengue fever caused by a virus, unlike other infections that increase leukocyte levels, in dengue infections, leukocyte levels remain or even go down.

Dengue Fever Treatment (Dengue Fever)

There is no specific drug to treat dengue infection. The standard therapy given in hospitals or health centers for the treatment of DHF is infusion with a dose adjusted for body weight. If someone has dengue fever, use heat-lowering drugs such as paracetamol and avoid drugs that contain aspirin because it can worsen bleeding.

Patients also need to rest and drink plenty of fluids. If a worse condition occurs within the first 24 hours after the fever goes down, the patient must immediately get treatment and treatment of DHF in the hospital.

Prevention of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

DHF is a disease that has not been found the vaccine. Until now there is no vaccine to prevent dengue fever. The best way to prevent dengue is to avoid mosquito bites. The steps you can take to prevent DHF are:

  • If possible, stay away from densely populated areas
  • Use insect repellent even indoors
  • When outdoors, use a long sleeve shirt and long pants with socks
  • Make sure windows and doors are safe and free of holes. If the bedroom is not filtered, use a mosquito net
  • See your doctor immediately if you have dengue symptoms.

In preventing DHF, there are several ways you can do to reduce mosquito breeding. One of them is to get rid of places where mosquitoes can breed such as old tires, cans, or flower pots that can hold rain water. Please note that Aedes mosquitoes like clear and calm water. In addition, this mosquito also likes clothes that hang, so another way to prevent DHF that you can do is to reduce the number of clothes that are hung at home as much as possible.

If someone in your home has dengue, you need to be vigilant about efforts to protect yourself and other family members from mosquitoes. Mosquitoes that bite infected family members can spread the infection to other people around him.

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