You certainly are familiar when you hear the name of coronary heart disease. Coronary heart disease is a heart disease caused by a buildup of cholesterol, fat, or other substances on the walls of blood vessels. Perhaps you are wondering, whether coronary heart disease can be cured? In addition, you might also be curious about what causes coronary heart disease and its prevention.
The heart is a vital organ the center of blood flow to the body. As we get older, the elasticity of blood vessels decreases, accompanied by free radicals and fatty plaque that sit on the walls of blood vessels.
Coronary heart disease is a disease that is medically called also ischemic heart disease. This disease is one of the highest causes of death in Indonesia. Around 35 percent of Indonesia’s population deaths are caused by heart disease. According to the World Heart Federation, the death rate from coronary heart disease in Southeast Asia reached 1.8 million cases in 2014.
Once you know what coronary heart is, you need to find out the cause of coronary heart disease.
Causes of coronary heart disease
Once you know what coronary heart is, you also need to know the cause of coronary heart disease. Some of the causes are as follows.
- Atherosclerosis due to cholesterol buildup.
Coronary heart disease is a disease that occurs when the coronary arteries (arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle) become hardened and narrowed.
Hardening and narrowing of the coronary arteries is caused by the accumulation of cholesterol and other substances, called plaque, in the walls of blood vessels. This buildup is called atherosclerosis. Over time, the plaque will get bigger so that blood flow to the heart muscle is getting smaller and more difficult. As a result, the heart muscle can not get the blood or oxygen needed.
When the tissue is lacking in intake, it responds to cells as what we know as “typical chest pain” called “angina”, or if the coronary arteries are completely blocked, then the patient can fall into a “heart attack” condition. This heart attack is a medical emergency because it causes permanent heart damage or even death.
2. Smoking habits
Coronary heart disease is caused by plaque buildup in the walls of blood vessels. However, besides that, you also have to know that there are certain conditions or habits that put a person at risk for developing this disease compared to others.
One of the habits that need to be aware of is related to the appearance of coronary heart symptoms smoking habits. It is well known that smoking has an adverse effect on the heart. Cigarettes cause an increased risk of someone affected by cardiovascular disease because the content of nicotine and carbon monoxide in cigarettes is very dangerous for the heart and blood vessels.
Someone who has the habit of smoking forces his heart to work harder because the carbon monoxide content in cigarettes makes the blood more saturated. As a result, the heart must work harder to pump blood throughout the body. This can also cause damage to blood vessels.
Perhaps you already know that if someone has diabetes, he must always be aware of the emergence of other diseases that accompany diabetes.
Someone who has a history of diabetes should always maintain his diet, because uncontrolled diabetes will make “bad” cholesterol easier to penetrate artery walls so that they form plaque on the walls of blood vessels. If this plaque forms on the walls of the coronary arteries, a person can suffer from coronary heart disease or CHD.
In addition, if the artery walls burst and blood clots occur, this blood clot will also make the blood flow becomes blocked which can gradually cause damage to the heart muscle.
Symptoms of Coronary Heart
Do you already know what are the symptoms of coronary heart disease that you need to watch out for?
If the plaque has not disrupted the flow of blood, or there has not been a plaque tear, then there is not necessarily a symptom caused. However, if the plaque is large enough, then the symptoms caused are as follows:
- Chest pain or discomfort in the chest, this pain can spread to the neck, jaw, shoulder, and left hand side, back, left side abdomen (often considered to be an ulcer). This pain is mild to severe. This chest pain is called “angina” which can last for several minutes. If the plaque has not completely blocked the coronary arteries, the angina will subside on its own. If angina persists constantly, then immediately take yourself to the doctor.
- Cold sweat, nausea, vomiting, or fatigue.
- An unstable heart rhythm (arrhythmia) can even cause sudden cardiac arrest which, if left untreated, can quickly lead to death.
Coronary Heart Diagnosis
There are several things that can be done related to the diagnosis of coronary heart disease.
Physical examination, medical history and a number of tests can help diagnose coronary heart disease, including:
- Electrocardiogram (ECG): This records the electrical activity and heart rhythm.
- Holter monitor: This is a portable device that patients wear under their clothes for 2 days or more. It records all the electrical activity of the heart, including the heartbeat.
- Echocardiogram: This is an ultrasound scan that checks the pumping heart. It uses sound waves to provide video images.
- Stress test: This may involve the use of a treadmill or medication that stresses the liver.
- Coronary catheterization: A dye is injected into the heart arteries through a catheter that is threaded through the arteries, often in the legs or arms, into the arteries in the heart. The x-ray then detects narrow spots or blockages revealed by the dye.
- CT scan: This helps the doctor to visualize the arteries, detect any calcium in the fatty deposits that narrow the coronary arteries, and to characterize other heart abnormalities.
- Nuclear ventriculography: This uses a tracer, or radioactive material, to indicate the heart’s chamber. The material is injected into a vein. It attaches to red blood cells and passes through the heart. Special cameras or scanners track the movement of material.
- Blood test: This test can measure blood cholesterol levels, especially in people over the age of 40, have a family history of heart or cholesterol-related conditions, are overweight, and have high blood pressure or other conditions, such as an underactive thyroid gland or any condition that can increase cholesterol levels in the blood.
Treatment of coronary heart disease
There are several ways of treating coronary heart disease that can be tried by sufferers.
Of course you already know that arrhythmias and heart attacks are due to emergencies, so this case is handled in the emergency department (ER).
As initial treatment, patients will be given oxygen, aspilets as blood thinners, morphine as an pain reliever, because the blockage that causes angina is very painful), sublingual nitroglycerin is placed under the tongue to relieve symptoms.
Definitive therapy that goes directly to the root of the problem, can be in 2 ways: operative by placing a ring, or with the drug r-TPA (Tissue plasminogen activator), which is a protein to destroy blood clots attached to the walls of blood vessels and is only given once a lifetime .
In patients with coronary heart disease, coronary heart disease is the first treatment in the ED to provide stability to the patient. After that coronary heart treatment that must be consumed as an outpatient treatment is sublingual nitroglycerin coronary heart treatment and aspilet medicine.
Your doctor will give a treatment for coronary heart disease in accordance with the conditions of your health problems and do not forget to always consult during this coronary heart treatment process.
Prevention of coronary heart disease
There are many things you can do to prevent coronary heart disease. A healthy lifestyle and regular exercise are very effective ways of preventing coronary heart disease. However, besides that, you also have to do the following as prevention of coronary heart disease:
- Know your blood pressure regularly and keep your blood pressure in normal numbers (<130/90 mmHg)
- Regular exercise
- Do not smoke
- Control blood sugar levels
- Control cholesterol and triglyceride levels
- Eat lots of fruits and vegetables
- Maintain a healthy weight
- Avoid excessive stress
Foods that Prevent Coronary Heart Disease
Your doctor may recommend foods that prevent coronary heart disease, including:
- Drink fat-free or low-fat dairy products
- Eat fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, like salmon or tuna, about twice a week
- Fruits, such as apples, bananas, oranges, pears, and plums
- Nuts, such as kidney beans, lentils, beans, peas, and lima beans
- Vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, and carrots
- Grains, such as oatmeal, brown rice, and corn tortillas
Food Abstinence Heart Disease
There is also a taboo on coronary heart disease that you should pay attention to, including:
- Red meat
- Fried foods both vegetable and animal oils
- Sugary food and drinks
Coronary heart disease is a disease that needs to be watched out for. Therefore, for those of you who want to avoid this disease, you must always pay attention to a healthy lifestyle and reduce the things that can be a cause of coronary heart disease.