Broken Bones (Fractures): Types, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Fractures are broken bones, which can range from thin cracks to fractures. Broken bones can be transverse, extending in several places, or into several parts. Usually, fractures occur when bones are affected by more force or pressure. If you suspect a broken bone, get medical help immediately.

A fracture is a condition that has several different ways in which bones can be broken; for example, fractures that do not damage surrounding tissue or tear the skin are known as closed fractures. On the other hand, one that damages the surrounding skin and penetrates the skin is known as compound fracture or open fracture. Compound fractures are usually more serious than simple fractures, because by definition, these bones can cause infection.

Types of Broken Bones

Here are various types of fractures or broken bones to distinguish the conditions, including:

1. Broken avulsion

This type of fracture is an injury to the bone where tendons or ligaments attach to the bone. When avulsion fracture occurs, a tendon or ligament pulls a piece of bone. Avulsion fractures can occur anywhere in the body, but are more common in certain locations.

2. Comminutive fractures

Is broken bone into more than two parts. Because enough strength and energy can break bones, this type of fracture occurs after trauma such as a vehicle accident.

3. Compression fracture

This type of fracture usually occurs in the bumps in the spine. For example, the front of the spine can be brittle due to osteoporosis.

4. Dislocation fracture

Severe injuries where the fracture and sprained joint occur simultaneously. Usually, loose pieces of bone remain stuck between the ends of the dislocated bone and may need to be removed surgically before the dislocation can be treated.

5. Fracture greenstick

Some bones are broken on one side, but not completely broken because the rest of the bone can bend. This condition is usually more common in children, whose bones are softer and more elastic.

6. Hairline fracture

Hairline fractures, also called stress fractures, are small cracks or severe bruises inside the bone. This type of fracture is most common in athletes, especially sports athletes who require running and jumping. people suffering from osteoporosis can also experience hairline fractures.

7. Impaction fracture

This is similar to compression fracture, but this fracture occurs in the same bone. This is a closed fracture that occurs when pressure on both ends of the bone, causing it to split into two parts that are held together. This type of fracture usually occurs in people who experience car accidents and falls.

8. Longitudinal fracture

This type of fracture is usually quite long and cracks along the axis of the bone. Because this fracture always follows the axis of the bone, and usually is a fracture that does not shift. Fractures can be divided into two or more fracture lines.

9. Oblique fracture

Is a relatively common fracture in which the bone is broken diagonally to the long axis of the bone. Oblique fractures vary in severity, depending on what bone is affected and how large the fracture is. Angled fractures tend to occur in longer bones such as the femur or tibia.

10. Pathological fractures

When the underlying disease or condition has weakened bones, resulting in fractures (fractures caused by diseases or underlying conditions that weaken bones).

11. Spiral fracture

This spiral fracture, also known as a torsion fracture, is a type of complete fracture. This fracture occurs because of a rotational or twisted force.

12. Stress fracture

Is a small fracture in the bone. Thin cracks arise due to repetitive pressure, usually caused by excessive use of limbs. Most stress fractures occur in the leg bones and lower legs, which support the weight of the body.

13. Torus fracture

The bone is deformed but not cracked. More common in children. This bone fracture is painful but stable.

14. Transverse fracture

Next is the specific type of fracture in which the fracture is at a right angle to the long plane of bone. Transverse fractures usually occur as a result of a strong force that is applied perpendicular to the long axis of the bone. These fractures may also be a result of stress fractures where many microscopic breaks form in the bone from repetitive stress, such as running.

Causes of Broken Bones

You can risk developing a broken bone if the bone is affected with greater pressure or strength than that can support. This style usually occurs suddenly or very intense. The forces determine the severity of the fracture.

Some common causes of fractures include:

  • Fall down
  • The impact strikes directly on your body
  • Traumatic events, such as car accidents or gunshot wounds
  • Sports injuries.

Symptoms of Broken Bones

Most fractures or fractures are accompanied by severe pain when the initial injury occurs. This can get worse when you move or touch the injured area. In some cases, you can even pass out because of pain. You may also feel dizzy or cold from shock.

Other potential signs and symptoms of fracture include:

  • Crunching when an injury occurs
  • Swelling, redness, and bruising in the injured area
  • Difficulty sustaining weight with the injured area
  • Deformities seen in the area of ​​injury
  • Angulation (the affected area may bend at an unusual angle)
  • If the fracture is open, there may be bleeding
  • In some cases, you might see broken bones penetrate your skin
  • Looks pale
  • Pain and nausea.

Diagnosis of Broken Bones

The doctor will do a physical examination, identify signs and symptoms, and make a diagnosis. The patient will be interviewed, or friends, relatives, and witnesses if the patient is unable to communicate properly, about the circumstances that caused the injury or which might have caused it.

In addition, the doctor will often take x-rays. In some cases, MRI or CT scan can also be done.

Fracture healing is a natural process, in many cases, it will happen automatically. Fracture treatment usually aims to ensure there is the best function of the injured part after healing.

Treatment of Broken Bones

If you are diagnosed with a fracture, the treatment plan will depend on the type and area of ​​the body.

1. Stabilize bone fractures

In general, the doctor will try to restore the broken bone to its original position and stabilize the bones as they heal. It is important to keep pieces of damaged bone immobile until they are healed.

During the healing process, new bone will form around the edge of the broken piece. If the bones are completely aligned and stable, the new bone will eventually connect the pieces.

2. The use of casts

Your doctor may use a cast to stabilize your broken bone. Your cast is most likely made of plaster or fiberglass. This will help keep the injured area stable and prevent pieces of damaged bone from moving when the fracture heals.

3. The use of pulleys

In rare cases, you may need traction to stabilize the injured area. Traction stretches the muscles and tendons around your bones.

Your doctor will treat fractures using the pulley system and the weights are positioned in a metal frame above your bed. This system will produce gentle pulling movements that the doctor can use to stabilize the injured area.

4. Surgery

For complex fractures, you may need surgery. The doctor may use open reduction, and internal fixation or external fixation to keep the bones from moving.

In open reduction and internal fixation, your doctor will change positions or “reduce” pieces of broken bone into normal lines of bone. Then they will connect or repair broken bones. this method is done using screws, metal plates, or both. In some cases, your doctor may insert a stem through the center of your bone.

In external fixation, the doctor will place pins or screws into the bone above and below the fracture area. The doctor will connect these pins or screws to the metal stabilizer rod that is positioned on the outside of your skin. The stem will hold the bone in place when healing.

5. Drug fractures

Your doctor may also prescribe fractures to control pain, fight infection, or manage other symptoms or complications. After the initial treatment phase, your doctor can recommend physical therapy or other procedures to help you heal the fracture.

Prevention of Broken Bones

Here are tips for preventing fractures or broken bones that you can apply every day:

1. Nutrition and sunlight

The body basically requires adequate calcium intake for bone health. A good source of calcium you can get from milk, yogurt, cheese and dark green leafy vegetables.

The body also needs vitamin D to absorb calcium. You can get vitamin D by basking in the sun (recommended in the morning), eating eggs, and oily fish.

2. Physical activity

If you often exercise weight-bearing, the stronger and denser your bones. Exercises that make your bones strong such as running, walking, running, jumping, and dancing, or any exercise that can strengthen bones. That way you can prevent fractures.

3. Menopause

Estrogen is a hormone that regulates calcium in women. This hormone will be reduced during menopause, which makes controlling calcium much more difficult. As a result, women must be very careful of their bones during and after menopause.

The following tips can help you reduce the risk of osteoporosis after menopause:

  • If addicted to smoking, stop immediately altogether
  • Do short weight training every week
  • Avoid alcohol
  • Often bask in the sun
  • Make sure a diet that contains lots of calcium. For those of you who have difficulty consuming calcium foods, your doctor may recommend taking calcium supplements.

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