Acute kidney failure is a condition where the kidneys suddenly stop working. When the kidneys stop working, waste products and electrolytes will be buried in the body. When the kidneys experience this condition, metabolic waste will continue to accumulate because it cannot be secreted optimally by the body.
Usually, acute kidney failure occurs as a complication of other serious illnesses, and generally affects parents or intensive care patients. The kidneys can experience the condition of acute kidney failure quickly in just a few hours. If not treated immediately, acute kidney failure can endanger the lives of sufferers.
Causes of acute kidney failure
The cause of acute kidney failure is divided into three factors, namely:
- A sudden decrease in blood flow to the kidneys. Severe blood loss, injury, or a bad infection (sepsis) can reduce blood flow to the kidneys. Not enough fluid in the body (dehydration) can also harm the kidneys.
- Kidney damage from several drugs, poisons, or infections. Most people do not have kidney problems due to drugs. But people who take long-term drugs have more potential than people who don’t take drugs regularly. Examples of medicines that can sometimes harm the kidneys include:
- Antibiotics, such as gentamicin and streptomycin.
- Pain medications, such as naproxen and ibuprofen.
- Some blood pressure medications, such as ACE inhibitors.
- Dyes used in several X-ray tests.
- A sudden blockage in the kidney’s flow, such as a kidney tumor, kidney stones, injury, or enlargement of the prostate gland, can also cause a blockage. To note, you have a greater chance of getting acute kidney failure if:
- Aging age
- Have long-term health problems such as kidney or liver disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart failure, or obesity
- Heart surgery or stomach surgery or bone marrow transplant can make you more likely to have kidney problems
Symptoms of Acute Kidney Failure
There are several common factors that can be recognized when someone is convicted of developing acute kidney failure, including:
- Decreased urine production.
- Swelling, especially in the legs and arms.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Pain in the lower back just below the rib cage.
In the initial phase, acute kidney failure usually does not show any symptoms. However, this disease can get worse quickly and suddenly like some of the above symptoms.
Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Failure
Patients with acute kidney failure usually complain of a decrease in the amount of urine excreted. In addition, physical examination can be seen as a sign of dehydration, and in severe kidney disorders can be found a decrease in consciousness.
In addition to urine tests, other tests that can be done are blood tests to check the levels of sodium, potassium and calcium. Sometimes, doctors also recommend doing an ultrasound. This imaging test allows the doctor to see the condition of the kidneys as a whole.
Scanning tests like ultrasound can be used to look for causes of acute kidney failure, for example there is a blockage in the urinary system. Examination by taking a portion of kidney tissue as a sample to be examined under a microscope (biopsy), sometimes needed to determine the cause of acute kidney failure.
Someone can be concluded affected by acute kidney failure if the diagnosis shows:
- The volume of urine excreted is reduced.
- Rapid increase in blood urea also occurs in acute kidney failure.
- Creatinine content in the blood is above normal and continues to increase.
Treatment for Acute Kidney Failure
Treatment can vary depending on the cause. For example, doctors may need to restore blood flow to the kidneys, stop drugs that can cause problems, or eliminate blockages in the urinary tract.
At the same time, the doctor will try to:
- Stop the dirty waste in the body. You may need dialysis or hemodialysis. This treatment uses a machine to replace your kidney’s work until the kidney’s condition improves.
- Take action to free the blockage of urine outflow. In severe acute kidney disorders, hemodialysis can be considered.
In addition, you may also have to follow a special diet to keep your kidneys from working too hard. You may need to limit sodium, potassium, and phosphorus. Consult with a nutritionist to help plan the right meal for you.
Prevention of Acute Kidney Failure
All people who are at risk for acute kidney failure should be monitored when they are sick or start new treatments. These people are advised to undergo blood tests and check urine volume regularly.
Prevention of acute kidney failure is to avoid the use of drugs that are toxic to the kidneys. Avoid consumption of mixed alcohol and drink enough water to prevent dehydration.
In addition, keep living a low protein diet. This is the right diet important to prevent complications. You should not eat fruits, chocolate, and nuts that contain potassium in your daily diet. If the kidneys don’t work, high potassium levels can be dangerous for the heart.